A mobile phone or mobile (also called cellphone and handphone, as well as cell phone, cellular phone, cell, wireless phone, cellular telephone, mobile telephone or cell telephone) is a long-range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. In addition to the standard voice function of a mobile phone, telephone, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception is satellite phones).
The International Telecommunication Union estimated that mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide would reach approximately 4.1 billion by the end of 2008 and mobile phones are starting to reach the bottom of the economic pyramid. A mobile phone proper typically has a telephone keypad, more advanced devices have a separate key for each letter. Some mobile phones have a touch screen.
People have wanted to make mobile phones for a long time, but it took until the late 20th century for technology to make them possible.
Although Dr. Martin Cooper from Motorola made the first call using a mobile phone in 1973, this was not on a cellular mobile phone network as we use today.
The first mobile phone networks were created in the late 1970s in
A cell phone has combined two technologies: telephone (invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876) and radio (invention of Nikola Tesla in the 1880s).Cell phones work as two-way radios. They send electromagnetic microwaves from base station to base station. The waves are sent through antennas. This is called wireless communication.
- Analog networks
- Digital networks
Most of the older cell phones use analog networks. All modern phones use digital networks.Digital networks are also known as second generation, or 2G, technologies. They differ either by technology or by speed. The most used digital network is GSM (Global System for
The radio waves that the mobile phone networks use are split into different frequencies. The frequency is measured in Hz. Low frequencies offer good connection. Higher frequencies can send the signal further. Four main frequencies are used around the world: 850, 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz. Europe uses 900 and 1800 MHz and
Today there are mobile phones that work on two, three or four frequencies. The most advanced phones work on all frequencies. They are called 'world' phones and can be used everywhere.
Mobile Operators of
grameenphone (Bengali: গ্রামীণফোন) is a GSM-based cellular operator in
At the end of 2005, it had about 3500 base stations around the country with plans to add about 500 in the following six months. Grameenphone's stated goal is to provide cost-effective and quality cellular services in
On the 16th of November, 2006 GP formally changed its logo to match its parent company Telenor's logo. According to GP the new logo symbolizes trust, reliability, quality and constant progress.
The idea of providing wider mobile phone access to rural areas was originally conceived by Iqbal Quadir, who is currently the founder and director of the
Grameenphone received a license for cellular phone operation in
Grameenphone originally offered a mobile-to-mobile connectivity (widely known as GP-GP connection), which created a lot of enthusiasm among the users. It became the first operator to reach the million subscriber milestone as well as ten million subscriber milestone in
Grameenphone offers subscription in two categories, Prepaid Subscription and Postpaid Subscription.
Prepaid subscriptions are sub-divided into three plans:
- smile (mobile to mobile connectivity within
- smile PSTN (nationwide and international mobile and land line connectivity)
- djuice (a youth based mobile to mobile connectivity within
- xplore (nationwide and international mobile and landline connectivity)
Grameenphone also offers different value-added services including SMS, MMS, Welcome Tunes (Ringback Tones), Voice SMS, SMS Push-Pull Service, Voice Mail Service (VMS), and Fax and Data among others. Grameenphone was the first mobile operator in
banglalink (Bengali: বাংলালিংক), is the second largest cellular service provider in
banglalink had 1.03 million connections until December, 2005. The number of banglalink users increased by more than 253 per cent and stood at 3.64 million at the end of 2006, making it the fastest growing operator in the world of that year.
In August, 2006, banglalink became the first company to provide free incoming calls from BTTB for both postpaid and prepaid connections.
Sheba Telecom (Pvt.) Ltd. was granted license in 1989 to operate in the rural areas of 199 upazilas and later they were also allowed to extend to cellular mobile radio-telephone services.
In July, 2004, it was reported that Orascom Telecom is set to purchase through a hush-hush deal the Malaysian stakes in Sheba Telecom, as it had failed to tap the business potentials in
The main reason for the undercover dealing was because the existing joint venture agreement between the Bangladeshi and the Malaysian partners dictates that if any party sells its Sheba shares, the other party will enjoy the first right to buy that.
Integrated Services Ltd (ISL), the Bangladeshi partner, was being 'officially' shown as purchasing the shares held by Technology Resources Industries (TRI) of
In September, 2004, Orascom Telecom Holdings purchased 100% of the shares of Sheba Telecom (Pvt.) Limited (“
Telekom Malaysia International Bangladesh (TMIB) Limited is a joint venture between Telekom Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. (70%) and NTT DoCoMo (30%).
Aktel is the third largest mobile phone operator in
AKTEL boasts of the widest international roaming service in the market, connecting 315 operators across 170 countries. It is the first operator in the country to introduce GPRS. AKTEL uses GSM 900/1800 MHz standard and operates on allocated 12.8MHz frequency spectrum.
AKTEL launched its operations on the 15 November, 1997 in Dhaka and on 26 March, 1998 in
In mid 2008 news broke out that A.K.Khan & Company was selling its 30% and Vodafone, etisalat and NTT DoCoMo were among the potential buyers. Mr. AK Shamsuddin Khan, Chairman A.K.Khan & Company and Mr. Salahuddin Kasem Khan, former Chairman of AKTEL and Managing Director of A.K.Khan & Co Ltd represented the sellers. After months of negotiation NTT DoCoMo sealed a deal with A.K.Khan & Company for US $ 350mln on June 2008. The deal was completed on September 19, 2008.
TeleTalk (Bengali: টেলিটক) (Teletalk Bangladesh Ltd) is a GSM based state-owned mobile phone company in
The mission statement of Tele Talk is "Desher Taka Deshey Rakhun" ("Keep your Money in your Country")
TeleTalk is the 6th largest mobile phone operator in
Warid Telecom International Ltd. is a GSM-based cellular operator in
Warid officially launched their commercial services in
On July 19, 2007 Warid Telecom announced in major dailies of having achieved one million subscribers in the first of 70 days of operation.
As of September, 2008 Warid has secured 3.86 million subscribers and is ranked fourth among the six operators.
In December 2005, Warid Telecom International LLC paid $50 million dollars (
In a press conference on August 17, 2006, Warid announced that his network would be activated two months ahead of schedule, in October, 2006. Again in October, 2006 Warid Telecom put off the launch of its cellphone services in
Warid had a soft launch at the end of January 2007. It gave away complimentary subscriptions among a selected group of individuals, whose job was to make 'test calls' and the operator adjusted its network's quality based on their comments.
The official website of the company www.waridtel.com.bd, was launched on the April 30, 2007.
On the April 14, 2007 (Pohela Boishakhi day) Warid
On May 9, 2007, Warid in an advertisement in some daily newspaper stated that it would be launching publicly on May 10, 2007. However, no call rate nor any package details were revealed. The advertisement included an announcement for the people interested to buy Warid connections to bring the documents like ID Card, etc, to the designated franchise and customer care centres.
On October 1, 2007, Warid Telecom has expanded its network to five more districts raising total number of districts under Warid coverage to 56, says a press release. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Sherpur, Rajbari and Narail towns are now under Warid network.
On November 10, 2007, 61 districts under Warid network coverage.
On June 10, 2008, Warid Telecom has expanded its network to Three more districts Bandarban, Khagrachhari and Rangamati. Now 64 districts under Warid network coverage.
Warid provides both post-paid and pre-paid connection plans. The post-paid plan is branded and marketed across the country under the name Zahi Post-paid, which means leader or royalty. The pre-paid segment is branded and marketed as Zem Pre-Paid.
The Zem Prepaid category is divided into four segments:
- Zem 24Hrs (startup)
- Zem 1 Sec
- Zem FnF
- Zem FUN
The Zahi Postpaid category is divided into two segments:
- Zahi Royal
Citycell (Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited) is the first mobile communications company of
By the end of 2007 Citycell had refurbished its old brand identity and introduced a new logo and corporate identity; the new logo is very reminiscent of the old logo. However the slogan has remained unchanged "because we care"
As of July, 2008 Citycell has 1.67 million subscribers.
In 1989 Bangladesh Telecom Limited (BTL) was awarded a license to operate cellular, paging, and other wireless communication networks. Then in 1990 Hutchison Bangladesh Telecom Limited (HBTL) was incorporated in
(PBTL) and launched the brand name "Citycell Digital" to market its cellular products.
Citycell offers prepaid, postpaid and fixed phone plans. Since Citycell operates in CDMA, RIM's are usually sold with a phone mostly cheap Chinese sets produced by ZTE, Huawei, Samsung, Motorola and Alcatel. Citycell currently has the cheapest phone+connection tariff at 1399 taka.
The current only prepaid plan is branded as Citycell One. Under this package Citycell customer can call to other Citycell users for only 25 paisa and other operators for only 98 paisa all day all night. Citycell started offering prepaid plans from 2003. It was the first to offer a prepaid plan with BTTB connectivity in the same year. During 2005-6, the company made great strides in its prepaid product offering. In 2005, it launched the Aalap Call Me plan- the first phone plan with negative tariff in the country. In this plan customers get credit added to their balance when they receive calls from other Citycell subscribers. In the same year, Citycell launched Aalap Super plan. Subscribers of this plan could make free calls to other Citycell subcribers during late night hours. This espoused numerous copycat products from its competitors. Later that year the national telecoms regulator ordered all phone companies to cease offering free call facility. In 2006, Citycell launched Hello 0123 plan. The name 0123 signified tariff of Tk 0 for calls to one Citycell number of the subcriber's choice, Tk 1 for calls to two other Citycell numbers, Tk 2 for calls to all other Citycell numbers and Tk 3 for calls to all other networks. This plan was followed up with a string of other spinoff plans that continued into 2007.
As advertised in June 2008, Citycell became the first mobile operator to sign up for Instant Load. Instant Load is a joint effort from Dutch-Bangla Bank and Citycell that lets pre-paid account holders top up their phone through SMS anytime, without the need to visit any store or purchase any minutes. This service is being offered free-of-charge and it is the first service of its type in
After receiving the SMS, Citycell automatically withdraws the desired amount from the bank account instantly. It is not known if the service is applicable for post-paid users.
The postpaid plan is branded as Citycell One.Call rate is .98 Tk/munute. The Postpaid subscribers enjoy 4 FnF numbers to other operators,30 sec pulse applicable for all outgoing, Zoom Data service etc in additional.
Recently in Int. Tread fair 2009, Citycell Introduced a new postpaid service called VOICE-DATA plan with cheaper tarrif as low as 0.65 Tk/minute voice call and sms on any operator and BTTB (NWD) and 0.25 Tk/minute voice call and sms on any Citycell Number. With Attractive Data Plan ZOOM 2GB/Month @ 450 Tk and ZOOM 5GB/Month @ 700 Tk.
Advantages of Mobile Phone
The latest craze in the arena of communication, mobile phones have become the most essential means of communication. These multimedia mobile phones let you enjoy all the comforts in a single device. Apart from the instant access they give us, mobile phones can be vital, convenient and cost-effective for people who want to stay connected all the time. With mobile phones becoming a necessity, manufacturers are introducing all types of latest phones with never before seen features packed in exceptionally slim and stylish devices, putting the world in your pocket.
Whether you are searching for basic handsets or hi-tech multimedia devices, you’ll find a phone for yourself. These single devices perform various functions, eliminating the need for carrying different stand alone gadgets. Your mobile phone is now your music system, digital camera, gaming device, etc. These mobile phones cater to the need of each and every class of people. Coming up with amazing styles, designs and functions, these latest phones are incorporated with high-end features like high resolution cameras, video calling, MP3 music player, web browsing
capability and Bluetooth connectivity. The newest mobile phones ensure that you get outstanding multimedia capabilities. With the MP3 player, play your desired tracks with superb sound quality, capture your special moments with the high-resolution mega pixel camera and share them with friends via powerful Bluetooth wireless technology. These single devices allow you to enjoy entertainment, access information, capture and share pictures and videos, at anytime and anywhere you want.
Now you have a mobile phone with features ranging from music, games, camera, web browsing to your business solutions. So if you are looking forward to buy the latest mobile phones in the market, just keep an eye on the online mobile market to keep yourself updated with the latest handset releases. Select a mobile phone deal like cheap mobile phones, contract mobile phones, etc. and get the latest technology in the palm of your hand.
Disadvantages of Mobile Phone
The development of mobile phones brought convenient and advantages to the world. Communication between people and people are easier and fast. Though, the disadvantages brought along with the fast grown technology cannot be ignored. These problems not only influenced people personally but also the society.
Symptoms caused by the radiation of mobile phones are one of the most argued problems. Many scientists believe that the radiation from the mobile phones may cause the users to have different symptoms such as headache, earaches, blurring of vision and even causing cancer. Though, these problems are still under research. Mobile phone users are advice to reduce the usage on mobile phones if it is possible.
Mobile phone addiction is a big social problem. Psychiatrists believe that mobile phone addiction is becoming one of the biggest non-drug addictions in the 21st century. Along with the age drop of the mobile phone users and the ease of prepaid method provide by the system operators, most teenagers now own their own mobile phone and network service. Teenagers are engaged on their mobile phones all the time, no matter on phone calls, using SMS text messages, personalising the mobile phones with ringtones and
pictures etc. Besides this, many people are running after the lastest mobile phones. New models of mobile phones are released almost everyday. In order to get up-to-date, people tend to change their mobile phones once in a while. These became habits among the mobile phone users causing them to spend unnecessary cost on mobile bills and costs.
Cyber bullying is also another issue among the disadvantages of mobile phones. Cyber bullying is a bullying act using offensive words and behavior via online chatting, emails or SMS text messages. It was showed that the psychological effects of cyber bullying are much severe that face-to-face bullying. This problem now is among teenagers especially the secondary students.
There are still many problems causing but the new technology. Mobile phones with camera functions are causing privacy problems.